Publikationen

Auf ­­­­dieser Seite ist eine Auswahl themenrelevanter Fachpublikationen und Beiträge zusammengestellt. Die Sammlung enthält sowohl Publikationen von den Projektpartnern, aus Vorläufer- und themenverwandten Projekten, von externen Autoren/Instituten sowie aus dem Nutzwasserprojekt selbst.

2021

Inline dosing of powdered activated carbon and coagulant prior to ultrafiltration at pilot-scale – Effects on trace organic chemical removal and operational stability

Christoph Schwaller, Grit Hoffmann, Christian X. Hiller, Brigitte Helmreich, Jörg E. Drewes. 2021. Chemical Engineering Journal. Volume 414. doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.128801

Abstract:
Hybrid membrane processes such as inline dosing of powdered activated carbon (PAC) prior to ultrafiltration membranes (UF) have already shown promising potential for the abatement of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs). However, questions regarding the optimization of the operational stability by the employment of coagulation and its interferences with inline dosed PAC, have not yet been comprehensively investigated. Within the scope of this pilot-scale study, inline dosing of different sized PAC types at different dosages was combined with or without the addition of polyaluminium chloride (PACl) coagulant prior to UF. As expected, when PAC was not employed, negligible TOrC removal was observed, whereas all the operational modes with the application of PAC inline dosing showed significant TOrC removal. Coagulation with PACl clearly reduced the build-up of transmembrane pressure, especially owing to maintaining hydraulic backwash efficiency. The operational mode of precoating the UF with PACl combined with continuous inline dosing of PAC exhibited particularly good TOrC removal results along with optimized membrane fouling mitigation. In contrast, the simultaneous and continuous dosing of PAC and PACl is not recommended, in particular owing to detrimental effects of the coagulant on TOrC removal efficiency by PAC.

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Estimating the agricultural irrigation demand for planning of non-potable water reuse projects

Christoph Schwaller, Yvonne Keller, Brigitte Helmreich, Jörg E. Drewes. 2021. Agricultural Water Management. Volume 244. doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2020.106529

Abstract:
Water reclamation and reuse represent a promising approach to mitigate water related use conflicts especially in the agricultural sector where challenges with regard to water management are increasingly exacerbated by the effects of climate change. However, for the conceptualization and implementation of non-potable water reuse projects for agricultural purposes a comprehensive understanding of the irrigation requirements is required. But this information is frequently not readily available. Within the scope of this study modelling based on the approach implemented within the CROPWAT 8.0 software was applied in order to determine the irrigation requirements for an agricultural area in Gochsheim, Lower Franconia (Germany) since locally recorded data were missing, inconsistent or incomplete. The model was validated not only by available locally recorded groundwater extraction rates for agricultural irrigation purposes but also by comparison with findings from the literature. Based thereon, the annual and daily crop specific net irrigation requirements of ten commonly cultivated crops were computed – those comprised celery, lettuce, onions, potatoes, cabbage and others. The crops showed crop-specific typical annual as well as daily net irrigation requirements, e.g. celery with an annual and daily demand of 228–602 mm and 5–20 mm, respectively. Particularly important for the planning of a water reuse project was the determination of the overall daily peak gross irrigation requirement. The modelling approach revealed a value of 14.3 mm/day for this area, which represents the technically as well as economically most feasible benchmark, and a good approximation to the historical recorded overall daily peak gross irrigation demand.

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2020

Forschungsvorhaben: „Nutzwasser – Gewinnung und Einsatzmöglichkeiten am Beispiel der Schweinfurter Trockenplatte“

Christoph J. Schwaller, Brigitte Helmreich, Heiko Gerdes, Jörg E. Drewes. 2020.

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2019

Risk management in water reuse – International perspective and approaches for Germany

Jörg E. Drewes, Veronika Zhiteneva, Sema Karakurt, Christoph Schwaller, Uwe Hübner. 2019. Zbl. Geol. Paläont. Teil I, Jg. 2019, Heft 1, 59–65. Stuttgart

Abstract:
Water reuse is being widely practiced in Germany today. Due to changing boundary conditions including climate change impacts, there is a growing interest in regions across Germany experiencing seasonal water shortage and increasing conflicts in water usage to also consider alternative water supply options including agricultural and urban water reuse applications. These water reuse practices are well established in many countries worldwide.  Regarding a proper risk management there is ample experience internationally which can be adopted for water reuse applications in Germany. This paper provides an overview on water quality issues associated with water reuse and summarizes state-of-the-art approaches of risk management.

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